30 thoughts on “Urban Geography Blog Assignment #3 – 2017 -Urbanization in the Persian Gulf

  1. https://djgarcia2.wordpress.com/sprawl-in-dubai/
    It is not just rapid urban growth . . . in Dubai, the growth of urban is exploding. Dubai has transformed from being a small port to a great global city. This change has not taken a long time; it has happened in a few decades. In the last decade, Dubai has built the tallest building in the world, artificial islands in a creative shape – a palm tree – the largest indoor ski resort in the world. Several factors have led to that growth. Individuals and companies make decisions on sprawl. The growth is not only a result of the government decisions, but people and businesses have an important role in take strategic decisions to set and structure this developed buildings. Also, the policies of the city help directory these decisions. Another significant factor is the boom in oil prices. The primary wealth of Dubai came from the boom in oil prices due to its massive supply and investing in capital which cause the initial growth of Dubai. Not only the oil but also the low gas costs which make transportation cheaper, and that help living far from the center of the city easy. Foreign citizens are allowed to own property particularly to increase the growth and the sprawl of the city. This law has opened a huge group of investors and entrepreneurs there.
    Fazli, R., Faridi, R., Urbanization in Dubai: Process, Problems and Challenges, Journal of West Asian Studies Center for West Asian studies AMU
    However, this rapid urban growth has resulted changes in the social and economic structures of the city and reached the environment of the region. Dubai has become overcrowded, and the population face transportation problems, foreign workers suffer stress, issues of social security. Job opportunities because of the fast urban growth of the city encouraged the mass movement of excess population from other countries. Although workers have changed the desert into luxury hotels and high-rise towers, they live cramped labor camps that are located in deeper in the desert, and such is far from their work place at about an hour or two, and they receive low pay. In September 2005, around 800 workers regulated protest march in the center of Dubai and set of a national argumentation about the acting of foreign workers.

    Al though of the high urban development level that Dubai reaches during the current period, the rapid urban growth has caused environmental problems in the city. One of these problems is the raising in salinity levels because the purifying of seawater and that to feed taps and fountains. Also, there is pressure on large oil reserves due to the fact that the rich lifestyle and what requests of waste treatment and providing fresh water requires huge amount of energy sources. In addition, the major industrial projects need vast electricity to be run.
    Water is the biggest challenge in Dubai. Water which is everywhere in the gulf, but it cannot be drinkable without desalination plants. This process produces emissions of Carbon dioxide, so Dubai became one of the largest carbon footprints in the world. Also, massive amounts of heated sludge are generated and pumped into the sea. Another problem that rapid growth has created is sewage treatment processes which are fighting to keep up with this development.
    References:
    – Alderman, L., (2010). Dubai Faces Environmental Problems After Growth

    – Fazli, R., Faridi, R., Urbanization in Dubai: Process, Problems and Challenges, Journal of West Asian Studies Center for West Asian studies AMU
    https://djgarcia2.wordpress.com/sprawl-in-dubai/

  2. Part of the United Arab Emirates , Dubai boasts a thriving economy based on oil reserves and extraction. Containing part of the 7th largest oil reserve in the world and ranking 17th in natural gas reserves the city has flourished in a very unforgiving environment.
    Since the discovery of petroleum in the early 1960s and having a relatively peaceful and stable government, Dubai has experienced a influx of cash, tourism, and immigrants that have transformed the once desert pain into an oasis of luxurious and mind boggling edifices.
    As oil fueled the economy the city began to display its economic prowess by building monuments that commanded the attention and admiration of the world. With what it seems to be a never ending cash flow from oil wells, Dubai continues to defy and control the surrounding unforgiving environment and thrives in a small confined area between the harsh arid desert and the sea.
    As the city continued to grow, thousands of immigrant relocated to Dubai to work in construction, service industry, and financial institutions. Only 40% of the population is native. the rest come from places such as India, Iran, South East Asia and Australia.
    Unlike other fast growing metropolis, Dubai has the money to plan efficiently and address any infrastructure issues that could arise. Located in the desert and with not rivers or lakes, the city has manage to tap into aquifers and to utilize the energy consuming and very expensive process of Desalination. By utilizing this process arid land can be turn into places where new residential areas can develop. Also, this process provides enough water to sustain the ever growing population.
    As the environment is controlled and money continues to flow, the people of Dubai continue to push the boundaries. Larger amounts of people need places to reside. Having the desert to one side and the ocean to the other, Dubai has resorted to creating ‘new land’ out of the ocean. A very expensive and time consuming process made possible only by an economy overloaded with cash.
    Knowing that oil will continue to provide financial stability, Dubai has opened its doors to tourism. The only ski resort in the desert is found there. Large hotels host guests from all over the world who can afford staying in Dubai. So, not only oil is producing a steady flow of urban growth, revenue and employment but now tourism and urban planing are as well.
    Dubai continues to test the very delicate balance between human interaction and nature. Some of the tallest buildings in the world are either built or being built there. New technology has been developed to achieve this feat. With every new building the city of Dubai leads the way in architectural development, urban planning, and infrastructure technology.
    As the influx of immigrants grows larger, the tolerance between the many different cultures becomes greater. The city has truly become a melting pot of cultures, languages and traditions.
    Dubai could be considered a success in comparison to other cities that are located in similar geographical situation and are struggling to overcome the same problems. The only difference is that Dubai has oil and others do not.

  3. Dubai is the largest city in the United Arab Emirates at 2.7 million people. One of the wealthiest countries in the world, UAE’s population sees many personal economic and social benefits thanks to the wealth the country has obtained though oil. The Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world and is located in the UAE. Grand architecture is one of the primary means of showing off wealth, which is why the wealthiest counties in the world invest great amounts in the design of iconic buildings. Dubai is a wealthy city and is able to invest in building design, but many of its neighboring countries in the region are not as fortunate. Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iraq and Iran each sit on large oil reserves, but due to their respective governments, revenue from oil is controlled differently. UAE has a small population and oil wealth is redistributed to citizens. Iraq has oil but because it is run by a broken government and has seen control by dictators, oil revenue is not distributed back to the people. Dubai may be focused on grand architectural design, but countries like Iraq have other priorities. Overall, though, oil has created many benefits for the country, but a country depending so highly on one commodity for grand wealth will prove disastrous in the future oil reserves are emptied.
    Control of the population is one of the primary ways UAE has maintained its wealth. The country has under 10 million people and ensures the population remains small by selectively allowing individuals into the country. A large portion of the UAE population is foreign, though, and they tend to hold many government and service jobs. There is an 8-to-1 ratio of foreign-born residents to naturals in UAE. A social issue facing the country is the Syrian refugee crisis. This country has maintained its wealth by maintaining the population, but due to the refugee population burden being taken on by neighboring countries, UAE has decided to step up and allow a few Syrian refugees to enter the country. Before only select professionals with legitimate reasons for entering the country were accepted, but now UAE has shifted its attitude to remain a “team player” is the globalized world.
    Some of the world’s grandest resorts and hotels exist in the United Arab Emirates. Wealthy people from around the world are invited to stay in them, making the county attractive to more wealth and competitive in the investment market. Although the infrastructure investment is high in this country, so is its impact on the environment. Because the richest of people flock to this country, many obscure designs exist, such as man-made islands created to look like palm trees. Pollution from buildings, construction and vehicles is also high. Because the city of Dubai and the country as a whole has only existed for a few decades, the rapid population development let to rapid pollution of the air and landscape.
    Though one of the wealthiest countries in the world, United Arab Emirates is not perfect. Social programs and overall economic benefits exist for its citizens, but there is high control by the government. Its dependence on oil is providing greatly for the county, but through time it will challenge the economic dominance of the United Arab Emirates.

    Sources:
    http://www.thenational.ae/uae/uae-to-welcome-15000-refugees-from-syria

  4. Dubai is a city in the Arabian Peninsula which just 30 years ago, was a piece of desert that many did not know existed. Over the course of 30 years it has seen a major development, and it is mostly known for its rapid urban growth which has affected every structure of this city. This development is attributed to oil leverages that Dubai controls, however, the main factor of this thriving economy is not based on oil which are government own enterprises, but rather they focused in coordination, to get people and materials in this city. This long-term thinking has provided Dubai with an advantage toward other competitive cities in the region. They provided the infrastructure and the environment for foreign investment. Their major investments are in real estate business and tourism. High density buildings, fancy restaurants, world’s largest to be airport and continuous construction are only few of the factors that characterize this city. Skyscrapers, five star hotels, construction sites mainly consist of people working there rather than actual residents. Dubai’s GDP has increased over the years, and they constantly attract new investors. But, Dubai as a city does not account for more than 2.7 million residents but its characteristic is that 96% are foreign born offering a high diversity in the city. Most residents are temporary workers in construction sites from India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and China. They provide cheap labor force. Dubai is facing a shift in their social structures. The residents live an elegant life. Only Abu Dhabi offers a similar luxury for their residents. This luxury attracts millions of tourists every year to visit this city. Social problems affecting the city are related to the labor workers. They live in camps and low wages. They work long hours and live further away in the desert. Crime is also thriving in modern Dubai.
    In the economic perspective, Dubai did not suffer much from the economic crisis of 2008-2009. They invested a lot in their infrastructure. Their focus is in making Dubai a world center for Internet and Media. Although with all these investments being made still Dubai and other cities of Arab Peninsula will face challenges like overcrowding, social security, traffic congestion, increase in energy use, high density, and water stress. This is due to their focus on business first rather than stable environmental planning. These environmental problems will arise with the energy and water needs increasing every day. Dubai’s plan is to concentrate in building world’s largest airport which by 2030 can reach 200 million passengers per year. Furthermore, they plan to build a transportation hub that would make Dubai a key to transport shipment between the east and the west. Unless major investments occur, Dubai is going to have it difficult to maintain its economic status. They seek for people to move in and buy properties, which is the goal for a stable city. Nevertheless, as other environmental and social challenges arise, Dubai will be challenged from the neighboring region cities which tend to develop their economic system in a similar model like Dubai. But, they are learning from Dubai’s mistake specially in the environmental planning and dealing with them in the beginning rather than when they arise.

    http://onward.nationalgeographic.com/2014/09/10/why-dubai-is-growing-so-fast-and-may-eventually-slow-down/
    http://www.emirates247.com/news/emirates/uae-witnesses-10-years-of-rapid-and-sustainable-economic-growth-2016-01-03-1.615817

  5. Dubai is the largest city in the United Arab Emirates. It differs from most arab cities in that it is not overcrowded, has very little rain, little racial tension, and a relatively low crime rate. But what Dubai is mostly known for is its expansive and recent urban growth and the fact that it is home to high dollar commercial services. There are many feats of engineering in Dubai, such as having a few of the tallest buildings in the world and a few of the largest man-made islands ever built. The extensive development and ostentatious image of the UAE’s city of Dubai was financed mostly by the oil industries that dominates the economy. Today, tourism plays an almost equally important role in the economy of Dubai. Some say it was the foresight of the inevitable depletion of oil reserves that led the government of Dubai to diversify and invest heavily in tourism and other services, resulting in the rapid, urban development of Dubai. However, due to the downturn of the economic climate in 2008, property values depreciated, putting a restraint of residential development and the UAE was under an ever increasing amount of debt from foreign investors, about 80 billion US dollars in 2009 . Some property investors spent several years waiting for their homes to be built, unable to release their funds from the investment. In contrast, there is heavy investment in commerce in Dubai resulting in an excess of commercial services.
    Immigrants from countries such as India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh flock to Dubai to find work. They make up 71% of the total population, and 90% of the private workforce. But for the most part, these migrants are living in unsustainable living conditions. There are persistent human rights violations by employers who maintain abusive labor practices such as subpar wages, required overtime work up to 21 hours per day, insufficient food, living conditions, the confiscation of workers’ passports, as well as physical and sexual abuse. Despite the works of human rights and migrant organizations, these human rights issues continue to persist and increase at alarming rates. The Kalafa System is put in place to monitor migrant laborers in arab countries, but it is considered by human rights activist as a system to enable wage slavery and offers little power for authorities to enforce these human rights violations.
    With a rapidly growing population in Dubai, the issue of supplying fresh water in a dry desert arises. The solution was to build a desalination plant off the coast of the city. However, this is a costly build that only gets more expensive as the population grows. The cost of building a desalination plant in California is around 1 Billion dollars and can only be much more expensive in Duabi. Not only do the financial expenses amount significantly but so do the environmental expenses. These plants produce large amounts of carbon emissions in which contributes to the UAE’s carbon footprint, being one of the world’s largest. Other than carbon emissions, the plants produce large amounts of brine which is toxic to the local flora and fauna of the Gulf.

    Alderman, Liz. “Dubai Faces Environmental Problems After Growth.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. Mar. 2017. .
    Armitstead, Louise. “Dubai’s Palm Jumeirah Sees Prices Fall as Crunch Moves in.” The

    Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 20 Nov. 2008. Web. Mar. 2017. .
    “I Already Bought You.” Human Rights Documents Online (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

    “Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses.” Migrationpolicy.org. N.p., 02 Mar. 2017. Web. Mar. 2017. .

    “Where Is Dubai and Why Is It so Special?” Where Is Dubai and Dubai City? N.p., n.d. Web. Mar. 2017. .

  6. Settled by the Bani Yas tribe in 1833, Dubai quickly developed around fishing, trade, and the collection of pearls. After silting, the harbor formed by the creek was dredged and expanded to support more trade as the pearl business became less valuable due to artificial substitutes. The discovery of oil in the region catapulted the independent city’s development. The ruler at the time of the initial inflow of oil money, Sheikh Rashid, invested heavily into infrastructure. The foresight shown by Sheikh Rashid would support the rapid growth to come in the region. By 1971, Dubai and other cities in the region like Abu Dhabi would form the United Arab Emirates. Despite the glamour of rapid urbanization, it has brought its share of problems to the region as well. Wealth in the region has brought upon socio-economic problems to the region as well as environmental concerns associated with urbanization.

    After the initial 30 year spike in urbanization and growth caused by the 1973 oil boom, the economy is beginning to stagnate. As oil prices level off and more of the world moves to renewable sources, Dubai and the rest of emirates will have to transition to a new economic base. Most of the wealth accumulated from their vast oil reserves has been invested into resorts and tourists attraction with an uneven amount invested into industry. Dubai’s prosperity has attracted many foreign workers who fill the low paying service industry jobs. The surplus of labor also serves to create low wages and jeopardizes worker’s rights. The social problems brought on by this influx in labor will be discussed in detail in the following paragraph.

    Poor, migrant workers flow into the region, mainly from India and SE Asia. These immigrants account for 80% of the city’s population but reap none of the benefits of living in the luxurious city. Most workers don’t even live in the city. Vast labor camps are being built further and further into the desert. Foreign workers have protested in an attempt to gain greater rights but hold little political power due to their lack of economic stature. Dubai in particular faces some of the worst social unrest, accounting 49% of property damage crime in the United Arab Emirates. The majority of these crimes are being committed by nationalities other than UAE. Only time will tell how the nation manages its foreign workers.

    An array of environmental has plagued the region as well. A growing population fueled by immigration has led to increased food needs that have depleted fisheries, groundwater, and soil quality. Urbanization and tourism has also played a role in degrading the environment. As the city expands, habitats are being destroyed and their species with them. Increased tourism in mountainous regions have also damaged fragile ecosystems.

    Despite initial investments into its infrastructure, Dubai is struggling to find a sustainable future that benefits the the highest number of residents. The happiness of foreign workers is of little concern to aristocracy as long as their is enough workers to man their resorts and restaurants. This disparity in prosperity is a boiling pot waiting to spill over as tensions increase.

    References:

    Smart Dubai Government. “Dubai History.” Dubai.ae. Government of Dubai, 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2017. .

    Fazli, Rakhshanda F., and Rashid A. Faridi. “Urbanization in Dubai : Process, Problems and Challenges.” Journal of West Asian Studies 22.1 (2008): 201-09. Publishing India. Web. 2017.

  7. Dubai has seen some dramatic changes in the last couple of decades. Due to its abundancy of oil, it has been able to urbanize and grow in dramatic ways. In just the past couple of years, due to urbanization, Dubai has stretched its border so far as to create artificial islands along the shoreline. This not only shows the cities growth but it also illustrates the nations affluent nature. After the giant oil boom, Dubai grew economically causing massive urbanization and a massive population increase. A majority of this population increase consisted of migrants from surrounding countries coming to Dubai for some of the many new job opportunities arising (a majority of these being construction opportunities).
    The rapid urbanization has created many economic and environmental changes in the city and in the way it functions. Dubai has changed to an economy that is mainly based on tourism. This meaning that many of the jobs now available to citizens are service or construction related. Luxury hotels, “water theme parks, restaurants, shopping malls, sports facilities,” and palm tree shaped islands are just a fraction of the tourist attractions available in Dubai (Fazli and Faridi). All of these industries are growing rapidly but Dubai needs to think of a backup plan. Since their economy is heavily based on tourism, if there is a recession and people can no longer afford luxury vacations to Dubai, the economy will suffer greatly. This economy is currently thriving but this could change in a blink of an eye.
    Another issue with this massive population increase is that a majority of the population currently living in Dubai are not native to Dubai. Many of these people are coming from neighboring countries and are migrating for job opportunities but this is leaving the city with a large surplus of workers, which ultimately keeps job earnings low (this same concept can be seen with the migrant workers during the Industrial Revolution in the United States), and working conditions poor. Migrant workers typically work twelve hour shifts and live in labor camps “an hour or two” away from their job sites (Fazli and Faridi). Suicide rates among these groups of people have skyrocketed due to these harsh working conditions.
    The economic development of Dubai has also introduced many environmental issues. Since the city has expanded in size, it has evacuated many habitats for animals native to that area. The growth of population has also brought pollution to the city with carbon dioxide emissions and poor waste management. A large amount of this carbon dioxide emission is coming from the desalination of the water. Drinking water is a large issue the city faces. Due to its location it does not have a freshwater resource forcing Dubai to rely on the desalination of water for a drinking resource. Not only is this an expensive task but it also has a heavy impact on the environment. Dubai is not using their resources at a sustainable rate, currently consuming resources “25% faster… than their availability” (Fazli and Faridi). An example of this would be the amount of ground water being removed to sustain the need of farming around the area. If this extraction continues at this rapid pace Dubai could face serious environmental consequences such as creating a cone of depression which is a result of removing ground water without allowing it time to recharge. Ultimately, Dubai is developing at an unsustainable rate that is putting the citizens and the city at harm. (Work Count 578).

    Fazli, Rakhshanda F., and Rashid Aziz Faridi. “Urbanization in Dubai: Process, Problems and Challenges.”Publishing India. Centre for West Asian Studies, AMU, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

  8. Causes and consequences of rapid urbanization in the Persian Gulf
    The discovery of oil in 1966 has created an incredible economic boom in the Persian Gulf. Dubai is one of the cities most impacted by the economic opportunity of oil. Of course, the Arabia Peninsula is a desert. This area has been dry and overwhelming hot for centuries now. But with the influx of wealth due to the world market demand for oil, the area has grown rapidly. I would say oil in the region and the wealth it creates are the cause of the intense urbanization of Dubai. All this money leads to extravagance. Even though this is a desert, giant water fountains and other wasteful displays are everywhere. The money creates architectural and economic excess. Buildings of unprecedented size such as the Burj Khalifa are scattered throughout the city. All this building led to environmental issues. Carbon dioxide from desalinization plants (all that water must come from somewhere) fogs the air. Also, building on sand is not the surest foundation. Many of the skyscrapers were built without environmental foresight.
    While the standard of living increases for many citizens in the area, many poor migrant workers live in shanty towns. Often these areas are demolished to make room for new luxurious buildings. They have 5 star hotels with personal swimming pools and ATMs dispensing gold bricks, but poverty is not completely gone.
    Because of the great wealth and expensive lifestyles of Dubai tourism has become a huge part of the economy. Expensive cars, yachts, horses, and houses are typical in Dubai. Because of the constant flow of people and the comparatively loose Islamic rules, many Muslims come there to drink, party, and more. I had a friend who lived there say there was many gay clubs that Muslim men frequented on vacation far away from their homes more inland of the Middle East.
    I think the immense wealth here is unique because if any western country found that much oil and produced it, it would look much different in my opinion. Oil in America or Russia or Australia makes only a few rich. The way our government is set up, I doubt that kind of society could ever be created. The lifestyle of Dubai shocks me because I have never seen anything like it. In America, whole communities do not get rich over a commodity. I wonder what philanthropy looks like in that culture, because in America that is something we expect from everyone, especially the wealthy.
    Dubai grew because of oil which created a lot of wealth and excess, but the rapid growth also created poverty for service workers, as well as transportation issues.

  9. United Arab Emirates was basically just barren wilderness in the early 1950s. it structures where just huts scattered around the sandy desert and was home to a very small population of people. Fast forward 6o years and you have a country thriving and housing some major fortune 500 companies and is even becoming a nice little tourist spot. all of this can be directed at the discovery of crude oil in the 1930s and 40s. which poured a ridiculous amount of money into their economy and allowed them to start building skyscrapers out of gold and islands shaped like palm trees. All this happened in such a short amount of time too. Their willingness to bring in skilled and unskilled workers from other countries help them build and urbanize the area. Dubai itself is occupied by around 85 percent foreigners. The consistent oil money The Emirates were getting was collected and used by president Sheik Zayed of Abu Dhabi to start up a number of construction projects which included housing, hospitals, mosques, and schools. This boosted the economy even more by bringing jobs to the countries. In 1971 the UAE was its own established country. But because of their unhealthy use of crude oil as their economic horse they are having to find new ways to run their economy because geologist’ are predicting they’ll run out of usable crude oil by 2020. But that’s where Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Doha come in because they are making extreme pushes to make them major tourist attractions and trying to get those cities to supplement to money they’re going to me missing out on when they run out of oil. They’ve begun to hire some of the most sought after architects to build the most beautiful and recognizable building in the world. Also trying to become one of the world leaders in renewable energy. The UAE is also trying to become an international hub for travel and fun. They have already started plans to build a 15 billion dollar international airport which would be historic and ground breaking. And cities like Dubai have already started weaning off the oil money for only 6 percent of its income is from oil the other 94 percent is from manufacturing, tourism, and service. Dubai also had a media fee zone which allows many tech giants to work in private and not have to worry about leaks and things of that nature. Dubai has multiple areas like this like their internet city, media city, and knowledge village. They are also looking to increase their own talents by making more high education and a Dubai international academy city which would help make it a giant in the world as far as innovation goes. The UAE is attempting to do this with many of its cities too not just Dubai.

    Kirstin Olmstead and Mark Tessler- Urban Development in the Arabian Peninsula-Volume 16, Issue 1, Fall 2008- Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.4750978.0016.103

  10. Settled by the Bani Yas tribe in 1833, Dubai quickly developed around fishing, trade, and the collection of pearls. After silting, the harbor formed by the creek was dredged and expanded to support more trade as the pearl business became less valuable due to artificial substitutes. The discovery of oil in the region catapulted the independent city’s development. The ruler at the time of the initial inflow of oil money, Sheikh Rashid, invested heavily into infrastructure. The foresight shown by Sheikh Rashid would support the rapid growth to come in the region. By 1971, Dubai and other cities in the region like Abu Dhabi would form the United Arab Emirates. Despite the glamour of rapid urbanization, it has brought its share of problems to the region as well. Wealth in the region has brought upon socio-economic problems to the region as well as environmental concerns associated with urbanization.

    After the initial 30 year spike in urbanization and growth caused by the 1973 oil boom, the economy is beginning to stagnate. As oil prices level off and more of the world moves to renewable sources, Dubai and the rest of emirates will have to transition to a new economic base. Most of the wealth accumulated from their vast oil reserves has been invested into resorts and tourists attraction with an uneven amount invested into industry. Dubai’s prosperity has attracted many foreign workers who fill the low paying service industry jobs. The surplus of labor also serves to create low wages and jeopardizes worker’s rights. The social problems brought on by this influx in labor will be discussed in detail in the following paragraph.

    Poor, migrant workers flow into the region, mainly from India and SE Asia. These immigrants account for 80% of the city’s population but reap none of the benefits of living in the luxurious city. Most workers don’t even live in the city. Vast labor camps are being built further and further into the desert. Foreign workers have protested in an attempt to gain greater rights but hold little political power due to their lack of economic stature. Dubai in particular faces some of the worst social unrest, accounting 49% of property damage crime in the United Arab Emirates. The majority of these crimes are being committed by nationalities other than UAE. Only time will tell how the nation manages its foreign workers.

    An array of environmental has plagued the region as well. A growing population fueled by immigration has led to increased food needs that have depleted fisheries, groundwater, and soil quality. Urbanization and tourism has also played a role in degrading the environment. As the city expands, habitats are being destroyed and their species with them. Increased tourism in mountainous regions have also damaged fragile ecosystems.

    Despite initial investments into its infrastructure, Dubai is struggling to find a sustainable future that benefits the the highest number of residents. The happiness of foreign workers is of little concern to aristocracy as long as their is enough workers to man their resorts and restaurants. This disparity in prosperity is a boiling pot waiting to spill over as tensions increase.

    References:

    Smart Dubai Government. “Dubai History.” Dubai.ae. Government of Dubai, 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2017. .

    Fazli, Rakhshanda F., and Rashid A. Faridi. “Urbanization in Dubai : Process, Problems and Challenges.” Journal of West Asian Studies 22.1 (2008): 201-09. Publishing India. Web. 2017. .

  11. Rapid economic development in any country will comes with both its challenges and benefits to the developing geographic area. Dubai is the wealthiest city in the middle east, with a booming economy based on oil production and extraction, creating a thriving and wealthy city. After the discovery of oil in 1962, Dubai experienced unprecedented growth due to the massive amounts of money and immigrants flowing into the area to take advantage of the new found resource. This discovery transformed a nearly un-inhabitable desert into what is today a desert oasis home to some of the wealthiest people in the world and most impressively large and intricate buildings known to man. Dubai continues to expand day by day with the seemingly never ending supply of money and oil to develop the urban region and its surrounding sprawl.
    A large number of these impressively huge buildings are hotels used to house the large number of tourists that Dubai welcomes each year. The countries governance also understands that the people who can afford to stay in Dubai will also be bringing large amounts of revenue to the city on top of their booming oil money, so the city has also developed to cater to these extremely wealthy visitors.
    A majority of Dubai’s two point seven million residents come from surrounding countries such as Iran, India, Asian countries, and Australia. Dubai also has allowed people from these outside countries to own property in the city in order to further increase revenue as well as the sprawl of the city its self. Due to the fact that Dubai does not have any nearby lakes or rivers to support its large population, they have had to use the process of desalinization in order to support its entirety, as well as accessing deep earth aquifers. Because of the use of this technology, Dubai is able to expand an area that should be un-inhabitable as well as supporting its ever growing, desert dwelling population. Due to the excessive surplus of cash due to the oil industry, Dubai is able to use innovative and expensive building and development techniques in order to support its diverse and ever expanding populous. This surplus of money also allows the city to expand and develop in order to stay ahead of its quickly growing populous and their every day needs for housing, transportation, and every day necessities of life for survival in this harsh desert environment. The main challenge that the city faces as it develops is overcrowding. With such a large population that is continuing to expand, it continues to be a challenge to keep up with this explosion even with the large amounts of available surplus cash. As long as oil continues to flow in the region, Dubai will continue to grow, expand, and push the limits of building and life in a harsh environment.

  12. Because of the rapid pace of globalization that has taken over the city of Dubai and pushed it to an extreme rate of rapid urban development in such a short period of time, the economic, social and environmental consequences have been extreme and drastically influential. Oil in this Middle Eastern gulf city has provided the economic catalyst necessary for the huge explosion of growth in the city. Pictures of the area before this economic boom are unrecognizable in contrast to the area in modern photographs. A desert like landscape stretched as far as the eye could see with little to no green space. With the boom of development came some introduction of green space in which I personally think has helped this modern city. These pictures are of such contrast to other dense cities because they are bright and seem clean perhaps because of the inclusion of green space and “natural” features like the bay area and trees in pocket parks. These cities have vast amounts of external power in the form of monetary ownership and thus display their power through the creation of mega glittering skyscrapers that dominate the cityscape and architectural advances, along with a seemingly out of place Architectural achievements don’t stop at the creation of these towering buildings. The city has also put huge amounts of money into the creation of expensive man made islands that host a large amount of residential development that is a stark contrast to the living conditions that are more likely to be found in the development seen in these photographs. These cities are the host of a large amount of modern apartment living that can be crowded due to the population boom that has occurred. Social problems that occur here are typical of a modern city with some overpopulation. Densely packed living creates the same problems in any location that it occurs, which Dubai cannot escape from despite the large amount of wealth in the city.

    The environmental issues here are interesting. Because of the excess of money, technological advancements are able to occur such as the desalination of water to create an abundance of water in an area that would otherwise have desert like conditions. Sprawl is tackled by the creation of the mega towers that are abundant in the provided images. Instead of building out, these cities are putting some effort into building up. However because of the huge amount of people living in this one area, pollution is bound to follow. Air quality has been a problem here, as well as some degree of sprawl. Oil is abundant and cheap and thus car travel is heavily depended on which also contributes to pollution and the continuation of sprawl for those who can afford to live outside of the city center that is so tightly packed. For those who can afford a car and gas and the price of living outside of the city, I’m sure the advancements of the area make it desirable despite the unnatural built environments deteriorate the natural environment that would be found and contribute to factors like erosion and increased pollution.

  13. The relatively rapid amount of urbanization that has taken place in Dubai since the start of the 21st century has led to a strange cultural juxtaposition between modernity and traditionalism in the UAE city. The incredible amount of construction and development in the city have resulted in some of the most massive and architecturally striking buildings in the world being thrown up all around the area (often next to less visually striking buildings that just meet the basic necessity of being very tall which lends itself to a skyline). Dubai yearns for an image of success in conjunction with globalization and economic prosperity and the population is subsequently increasing. Dubai’s population is about 1.9 million inhabitants (more than 100 times the population in 1950) with UAE nationals making up about 17% of that population. While not listed in population statistics, there is also a massive amount of migrant workers that live in the UAE and Dubai and are responsible for constructing much of the large-scale urbanization projects that are currently sweeping across the skyline. There are over 7 million migrant workers currently in the country with the vast majority coming from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and areas of Southeast Asia. These workers, as well as other poorer inhabitants of Dubai, have been seriously neglected over the course of urbanization efforts. New housing projects mainly only focus on luxury and upper class markets and have veered away from efforts to provide sustainable, affordable housing to those in the lower and working class. The city’s urbanization efforts are also geared heavily towards attracting as much foreign tourism as possible. Dubai’s goal is to attract around 15 million tourists each year and this focus on numbers has led to local communities and their needs being shifted to the backburner. Necessary public spaces and facilities are being ignored for the sake of further development of commercial property and tourism sites. One of the main reasons Dubai is doubling down and expanding their tourism and service industry base is because of residual effects of their economic crisis in the latter half of the last decade. Urbanization for the sake of quick economic base development was kicked into high gear and is continuing rapidly. Those in charge of Dubai urbanization are bending the laws of urban development to their will as well as the available environment. By constructing artificial islands like the Palm Islands, The World, and The Universe archipelagos, Dubai developers are literally breaking new ground on how to urbanize and develop the available space of a city. While the Urban development of Dubai will inevitably continue onward, the consequences and circumstances necessary to make it happen remain controversial. An entire city built on the backs on non-native migrant workers that forgoes its own roots and culture for the sake of foreign investment and spending. This kind of urban environment comes across as shallow and eager for the appearance of wealth at all costs.
    Source:
    Ogaily, Akram. Urban Planning in Dubai; Cultural and Human Scale Context. http://global.ctbuh.org/resources/papers/download/2390-urban-planning-in-dubai-cultural-and-human-scale-context.pdf

  14. In 1966 a major turning point for Dubai occurred. Oil was discovered and in 1969, its first shipment was delivered the future of Dubai as an autonomous state was cemented. In 1971 G.B. left the Persian gulf, but having announced their plans to do so several years prior, the 7 emirates on the area worked together to create the UAE(United Arab Emirates). They created the Jebel Ali Free Zone that was the jump-start the region needed to increase not only industry but other business too
    Dubai is a coastal city that lies within the Arabian Desert. The area of the city itself is mostly flat sandy desert. There are no natural rivers, but it does have a natural inlet. Dubai Creek, which was dredged to increase its depth for larger container vessels. In the past decade, there has been an increase in geo-modification. With the creation of Artificial islands, which are used as resorts and even to further sustain the cities growth with suburbanization. The cities sprawl is moving at a pace that islands intended for hotels are being rezoned as residential. There has been substantial hydronization of the area as well. With the increase in population, there is an increased need for green spaces with in the city proper. That required the city government to irrigate the whole city. The city invested heavily into desalination plants, which produce 98% of the city’s potable water
    The creation of the Jebel Ali Free zone caused the development of clusters of new free zones. These zones revel in the lax taxing of their goods or services. Since the early 1990s, Dubai has grown rapidly and prosperously. The population of Dubai in 1990 was 1.8 million residents and in 14 years, it has reached 9.4 million residents. Dubai has the world’s tallest freestanding hotel, Burj Al Arab, and the Burj Khalifa, which is the world’s tallest man-made structure. The city’s growth can be directly put at the feet of the oil industry, but it also being clever builders as well. However, since the 2008 recession the growth rate for the city has declined, at its peak, it had a projected 18.90% GR (growth rate) and it sits now at 1.06%. A drastic change in the population spectrum.
    A city, which the UAEs constitution declares Islam as the official state religion. The government funds or subsidizes almost 95% percent of Sunni mosques and employs all Sunni imams. The Shi’a minority is free to worship and maintain its own mosques. Dubai has large expatriate communities of Hindus, Christians, Buddhists and Sikhs. Non-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, wherein they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build their houses of worship.
    The damage done to the environment in Dubai is just now becoming known. Almost four decades of industrial progress with very fee limitation or regulations has wreaked havoc with the surrounding biome. Because of the dredging and redepositing of sand for the construction of the islands, the typically crystalline waters of the gulf of Dubai have become severely clouded with silt. Construction activity is damaging the marine habitat, burying coral reefs, oyster beds and subterranean fields of sea grass, threatening local marine species as well as other species dependent on them for food. Oyster beds have been covered in as much as two inches of sediment, while above the water, beaches are eroding with the disruption of natural currents” (“Dubai’s artificial islands have high environmental cost”).

    Sources:
    https://sites.google.com/site/palmislandsimpact/environmental-impacts
    https://news.mongabay.com/2005/08/dubais-artificial-islands-have-high-environmental-cost/

  15. Rapid urbanization in the Persian Gulf may seem like a good thing at first: it’s a boost in population that can contribute to the economy, the cities become more impactful to the rest of the world, tourists are flocking there, and the city gains a growing skyline that can be aesthetically aweing. Cities such as Dubai have a prime location for oil preserve exploits that have become the equivalent of gold in the world’s economy. This has allowed these areas to rapidly build an industry that much of the world is dependent on.

    The entire environment surrounding these cities has changed. The rapid growth has required innovation in architecture and engineering to handle the amount of new development and needed infrastructure that comes as a result. Dubai is an interesting example of how it accommodates buildings that are designed to be the tallest in the world and the new tourism industry. Since Dubai sits on a soft, sandy earth, the foundations for these buildings have to be fantastic engineering feats. The city has also built out the land into the gulf; satellite maps though the years show how land has been moved out into the gulf to create new tourist islands and ground for more buildings in the central business district. This kind of thing has been done in places such as the Netherlands and New York, but not on as grand of a scale as this. This kind of construction has consequences, however. The invasion into the gulf has affected the marine life, and all the energy required for the vast amounts of construction has increased the area’s carbon footprint to be among the largest in the world. The goal of the city was to develop as much as possible to keep up with the strong rise in the economy and influx of business, but it was done so without allowing the time towards constructing with the environment in mind. The economy allowed for quick construction and the expenditure on innovation of solutions for the problems that arose afterwards. A strong example of this is the city’s response to energy consumption. All the building construction and infrastructure required heavy amounts of steel and other related material production which increased and consumed the majority of the city’s energy usage. However, energy resources such as natural gas from Qatar and wind and solar power were difficult to obtain, so the nation began to research the alternative that is nuclear power. Still though, the nation would soon have to find another solution because nuclear power is not a renewable resource.

    Another consequence to Dubai’s rapid economic growth is the influx of global businesses. The central business district has become subject to globalization and that attracts people from many other countries to relocate there. This results in a much larger mix of cultures that may not be found in other cities of that part of the world. This is perhaps a positive thing, but there could be less of an identifying culture for the city in the beginning of this growth that is going to continue.

    Lindsey, Rebecca. “Urbanization of Dubai.” https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/dubai.php.

    Alderman, Liz. “Dubai Faces Environmental Problems After Growth.” The New York Times. October 27, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/28/business/energy-environment/28dubai.html.

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