44 thoughts on “Geography of Europe 2017 – Blog #4

  1. Having a solid transportation system connecting all the hubs of western, central, and eastern Europe is among one of the most important ways to ensure the flow of goods, people, and industry. For the EU especially, making sure that there is not a country under it’s domain that is being cut off from possible economic success in tourism, goods, resources, or untapped workforce. Integrating infrastructure helps to level the playing field across countries at different levels of stability, and forms a basis for EU Cohesion to occur. A program titled the Trans European Networks or (TENS) was created in order to do this. With 400 billion euro of investments to spend by 2010, these funds go towards basic transportation infrastructure such as rail ways, roads for cars and buses, flights in open airspace, as well as equal power distribution. High speed rail is an increasingly popular building option, because they are so efficient. They can reach speeds of 240 to 300 kilometers per hour, which means people can travel across countries faster, and for less hassle than flying. Goals for the future are for high-speed rail to reach all the way to Moscow! These additions might seem more superfluous to people outside Europe, but because so many citizens of the EU can live in one country, and have their job in another, a reliable, fast, and affordable method of commuting is a top priority.
    On a micro scale, within larger and medium sized cities, inner city transportation is just as important. Making these cities safe and easy for pedestrians on foot will be rewarded with money from tourism. Places like Copenhagen are know for their bicycle friendliness and infrastructure. Major rivers like the Seine in France, or the Po River in Italy will often have a ferry to shuttle people or goods through. I spent a few days in Belgrade, Serbia, which sits along the Danube River, where I saw many uses of boat transportation, especially for goods. Without that river, the capital of an already poor country like Serbia would be suffering that much more.
    Continuing into the future, the new project is to create the possibility of no “roaming” charges for telecommunications within the EU. Inter-connectivity is what will truly make co-existing countries stronger as a whole.

  2. The way in which Europe views their public transportation is very different compared to the rest of the world. Europe is a small continent but with millions of people living in dispersed areas, transportation allows for the flow of people and goods to be a lot easier. Not only does public transportation facilitate the contact between countries but it also unifies them in different perspectives such as sharing similar cultures, products, people, jobs and much more. There are some methods of transportation that work better in some countries more than others. Being such an old country that was impacted by industrial revolution and with modernity catching up so fast, they have had to figure out different methods that would be the most convenient to transport people. The creation of suburban areas incentivized the production of trains and metros or if living in the center made an increase in buses and bicycles. In a city like Dublin, cars is their main use of transport while compared to Amsterdam, there are hardly spaces for cars therefore bicycles are the most popular, it is sometimes faster to travel by bike or feet than by car.
    The government is looking for ways to make transportation a lot more eco-friendly and have come up with several ideas to so, for instance they are implementing cleaner technology that will emit less carbon, shift users to use environmentally friendly use of transport and reducing the need to travel by improving video calls or similar solutions. Most countries still use cars as their main source of transport such as Brussels and Berlin but people are changing to green cars, using electricity instead of petrol therefore there is an increase in demand for brands such as tesla. The disadvantage of this is that there may be too much demand for these renewable energy sources but there is not enough supply. The second most common usage of transport in different countries according to the chart is walking. The great thing about European countries is that everything is walking distance, the cities were designed in such way to make everything centered and convenient, it is very efficient if there is no place to leave your car or bicycle. In cities such as Amsterdam walking is the best way to get from one place to another. On the other hand, in the U.S it is very hard to walk or ride bikes and be safe at the same time, everything is far away. European cities have also invested a lot of money in making bicycles more popular, the government has created roads, rules and benefits for those who use bicycles as their main mode of transportation. In cities such as Paris, Dublin, Amsterdam, Rome etc you can find different bike companies who have bikes free to use in common areas through-out the city.
    Public transportation in Europe has become something vital, people cannot live without the common transportation. In some cities traffic is the worst therefore it encourages people to use the metro or bicycles, others rather go by feet. Public transportation is also taking another turn, not only do they want to connect all the countries together but they also want make it environmentally friendly. Europe is very keen in making itself an eco-friendly continent.

  3. As the industrial revolution reached its peak around 150 years ago the city began to change in ways it never had before. Rural populations migrated to urban settings and those who could afford to move away from the squalor sought land on the outskirts of these rising metropolises. Back then transportation was dictated by whether a person could afford a train ticket or a horse. The world slowly globalized and need for human movement became a concern for each government. Over the years, the population increased and transportation no longer required hooves. For a time Europe’s public transportation trends looked as though it would mirror the United States, however, the aftermath of both devastating world wars emphasized the need for cohesive intrastate transportation as the beginning efforts of the EU took root. The massive system of public transportation in place today blossomed in the West during the cold war and now the former Eastern bloc has been rapidly expanding their efforts as well.
    Today public transportation is just as important as private transportation, and even more important depending on who you ask. Because of the scale of Europe’s relatively small geographic size and this wonderful thing called the EU, one can travel across much of the continent in relative ease. Small rail cars carry individuals around/under cities and larger locomotives take them from region to region for affordable rates. The rise of telecommuting is a direct result of these programs. Often these rail lines are semi-government owned though they keep some nature of private corporations with them. A very interesting thing about the rail system in the EU is that each country must provide a certain quality of rail lines, so a train in Austria will look very similar to one in Sweden.
    Public transportation away from the rail can be just as easy to acquire. Bus networks run just as efficiently as many streetcars in some place. Though the long-distance buses are technically private, the effectiveness of private bus networks makes traveling very easy and cheap. Each major city has their own public bus station for these companies. On some occasions, like in Venice or Amsterdam, there even exists “water bus” systems to traverse the cities’ unique waterways. When it comes to biking, cities have countless bike paths and often the sidewalks are split between pedestrians and cyclists. Recreational bike paths like Fayetteville’s Greenway have become a no-brainer. The top right picture in the collage above shows one of the many daily renting stations for bikes found in many cities. Though primarily used by tourists, the infrastructure put in place by these cities allow private operations such as these to take root. The idea of public transportation should apply more to public infrastructure as many companies benefit directly in private transportation from these public installations like bike sidewalks and government subsidization of railway construction.
    This past summer I directly benefitted from all of these modes of public transportation while studying abroad in Germany. From the S-Bahns of Cologne and the U-Bahns of Munich when I saw the big cities to the bike paths of Upper Bavaria riding to class and the Bus services on a weekend excursion to Vienna, I was amazed by just how easy it was to get around. It really is a shame that this system doesn’t exist here in the States.

  4. Despite hundreds or even thousands of years of continuous urban development, European cities are often friendly to public transport and encourage collective travel to and from work, shops, and homes. Through several theories of urban development, from the winding, claustrophobic streets of Europe’s remaining old towns to the modern, postwar city, Europeans have a wide variety of public transport options. To a midwestern American like myself, Europe’s system of trains, tunnels, taxis, and trolleys is nothing short of amazing. While Fayetteville is an accessible city, our metro area is only practically accessible by car, and it pales in comparison to Europe’s well-developed and maintained public transport options.

    The wide availability of public transport in European cities is a product of their diverse phases of development. Starting during the Industrial Revolution, housing and workplaces moved closer and closer together. Factory workers often lived in abominable conditions mere minutes from their workplaces. With no amenities, rampant disease, and minimal personal space, anyone who could afford to live elsewhere would move away. Those who could, the managers and small-time bosses of these factories, still needed to get to and from work easily. In the UK and elsewhere, the solution was underground rail. With these early subways, these upper middle-class workers could come and go from their worksite with ease. Alongside the theory of garden city urban development, wealthy communities sprung up outside of the city center in the pre-World War II era. Various means of transportation, including subways, carriages, and trolleys, ferried people both around their growing communities and into the city center.

    Modern, postwar development blends the development theories of the past with the opportunities created from wartime destruction. While tragic, the war’s aftermath spurred damaged states to reinvest in urban development and build cities in a modern, effective fashion. Garden cities, green belts, and old downtowns are now connected primarily by rail, though travelling by foot or bicycle is also encouraged. As the above photo demonstrates, public bicycles are encouraged and fit the compact, restricted downtown streets. Unlike the United States, automobiles are largely ineffective beyond a certain point. In the UK, most major highways end in the city’s green belt; going further in is either very difficult or outright impossible, thus necessitating ride sharing services like the pictured bike rental. For longer travel that goes directly into the city, rail serves many European’s needs and is often faster than travelling by car. High speed rail links or will link most of continent, and EU development funds prioritize linking and expanding the continent’s rail networks. Even BBC’s Top Gear acknowledges the importance of trains for European transport, despite its obvious bias. An episode pitted Jeremy Clarkson in a Ford Mustang, the quintessential American car, against fellow hosts James May and Richard Hammond on public transport from Wembley to Milan. Despite the hosts’ obvious preference, the combination of trains and busses was easier, more comfortable, and still cost effective in comparison to the Mustang. The program perfectly encapsulated how Europeans have many viable choices for public transportation instead of relatively unwieldy personal transport.

  5. European public transportation started to make way following the industrial revolution and the switch to modernity with a focus on consumer concerns. With this approach came the newfound reliance on public transportation, a new essential with the establishment of the EU and the four freedoms clause. The four freedoms allowed not only free movement of people but also goods, services and capital. This essentially provided Europe with the incentive to expand more in terms of transportation. Free movement of travel between countries led to fewer limitations as more countries connected and the sharing of resources freely began. Due to its success, further expansion came into play and trade increased tenfold as well as technological development. For instance, in 2001, the Trans-European rail network became defined enabling interconnected rail system across the EU, enabling better and faster travel.

    The increase in public transportation development can be attributed to other factors as well. Due to increased concern over alternative energy resources, public transportation provided an excuse to limit emission into into the atmosphere. The transportation services in Europe have seen a decrease in emissions due to new regulations and measures concerning pollution. Having been the advocate for renewable energy sources, Europe has asked its residents to rely more on public transportation rather than personal vehicles to reduce overall pollution. Along with concerns over environment, as shown in the images above, though I was unable to locate the image in question, it appears that use of public transport, bicycling, and walking have almost all outdone the statistics shown by cars.

    I actually thought that Europe’s increase in development concerning public transportation was synonymous with the idea concerning the European Dream. The idea based on community and quality of life, in contrast to that of its American counterpart embedded in wealth and freedom. That connectedness to one another is important as well as being a part of a community. There is more focus on the compactness of space, i.e. closer residential spaces. The increase in government expenditure towards projects such as bike lanes, paths and etc. have allowed for easier travel routes and the increase in car free zones have also helped initiate the rise in public transportation use. A report was published in 2015 that focused on big urban cities in Europe such as London and Berlin where ” personal motorization use has decreased and an increasing number of urban dwellers are relying on other methods of travel due to density, new alternatives to travel, and the digital age. ” There is also the stigma concerning car ownership that may be at play here, previously car ownership was limited to the wealthy and today it still shows that medium to higher income individuals are traditionally car oriented.

    Ease of transportation is another reason. Considering the rise in car free zones, Europe has implemented several projects to help with transport in these cases. As shown above, the Barclays bikes provide a way travel with little hassle, it seems. Having never rode one myself, it does seem to be convenient however as the bikes have multiple location across major cities and the system appears to work fast. Europe’s use of public transportation is all about ease of access, with countries right next to one another, no restrictions but little room enables public transportation to be the best method of choice.

    Towards New Urban Mobility, lsecities.net/publications/reports/towards-new-urban-mobility/.

  6. Since the 1900s, transportation throughout Europe has become increasingly connected. After the industrial revolution in the 1800s, travel became much easier through the invention of the train. Now, travel that would have taken days could now be done in a matter of hours. This was revolutionary in terms of relationships between European countries.

    European cities work very hard to create an effective system of public transportation for its citizens. There are many different types of public transportation within cities in Europe. In many major cities, less than half of the population travels by car. One of the most successful modes of transportation throughout Europe is the train system. Trains and subways are a great way to get around in order to avoid getting stuck in traffic. Buses and trams are also a popular and efficient way to get around. These are great for travelers as they can give someone a tour of the city along the way to where they are going. People are able to buy tickets, one round or more, for a relatively cheap price. In some cities, buying a ticket will give you access to several different forms of public transportation. Some cities are even creating an eco-friendly option with a biking system. The biggest one in Europe is Vélib in Paris. Throughout the city, there are Vélib stations on the street where a person can rent out a bike that they can later return at another station. Subscriptions are very affordable with daily, weekly, and yearly options. However, this option does have a high risk of theft and vandalism.

    Travel is not only easy within cities, but throughout most of Europe as well. The creation of the European Union was revolutionary for inter-European travel. One of the major goals of the EU was to create a SINGLE MARKET ECONOMY throughout Europe. Among many other stipulations, this meant the adoption of easy travel throughout European countries. The Schengen Agreement is a treaty that was created by several member countries of the European Committee, and it largely abolished international border checks. Later, in 1999, the rules created in this agreement were incorporated into the rules of the European Union. This has allowed for an increasing connection between the European countries.

    There are several modes of transportation that make it easy to travel throughout Europe. First, again, are the trains. There are several popular train systems in Europe. For example, the Eurostar, which links the UK to continental Europe, the TGV, which is France’s main rail service, and Thalys among others.

    By making it easy to travel throughout Europe, EU member states are boosting their own economies. This greatly encourages tourism, which massively helps out their economies. Because travel is so easy, it also becomes easier for people to move from one country to another in Europe. If they know it will only take a simple train ride to get home, people are much more likely to be willing to move from their home countries.

    Through the adoption of easy transportation in Europe, the continent has a greatly connected economic and social system.

  7. Especially compared to cities here in the United States like Fayetteville, Little Rock, or even Dallas, European cities far exceed in the establishment of public transportation. Comparatively though, the United States also has a culture of cars, almost like we do guns, that Europe does not have. According to the European Commission’s Regional Working Paper of 2015, great potential still exists in Europe for growing urban public transportation even further. As seen with most infrastructure in the EU, the quality and quantity is much better in northern and western Europe compared to eastern and southern Europe. The Benelux countries offer the highest concentration of public transportation in cities with intercity public transportation having the potential to serve as regional usage. This report from the European Commission offers several graphs and charts to dissect the current state of public transportation in member states’ cities. One of these demonstrates the relationship between employment levels, population, and public transportation availability. Naturally, as long as the population is large and the employment levels are high the quantity and quality of public transportation in those cities will mirror those levels. High employment also often reflects a large commuting population from outside of the urban center and the availability of public transportation can ease the traffic levels on streets that are not made to accommodate increased commuter traffic. While Europe is known for their trains, buses also play an important role in public transportation within cities and urban centers. Train lines that do not already exist and typically will end up being a more costly and long-term investment than simply implementing or bettering bus transportation in cities. It is estimated that cities offering these amenities see at least 49% of their population relying on it as a means of transportation both to and from work and also for personal activities with the 74% of the population of Vienna, Austria relying on it (the highest of any EU city). Island nations such as Iceland and Cyprus have the lowest rates of public transportations usage and the highest rate of personal cars being driven around. This could be due to just one major metropolitan area in the nation and the higher likelihood of public transportations costs not being worth the money for the cities. The city of Copenhagen, known for its citizens biking around the city, has since seen a drop in the number of bikers as public transportation infrastructure has been expanded and improved. This shows no particular allegiance to a specific mode of transportation, just that the one that is the best fitted to suit one’s needs will be used. In 2014, Jalopnik magazine rated the top 10 cities for public transportation in the world with European cities filling six of those spots. While Europe has successfully implemented public transportation in a lot of their cities, this does not reflect on smaller cities and non-capital cities in the EU and should not necessarily be used to model a potential public transportation infrastructure development in the United States outside of the Washington, D.C. to Boston corridor or along the southern coast of California and Bay Area which model the closeness and high density of European cities where public transportation has been the most successful.

    http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/work/2015_01_publ_transp.pdf
    https://jalopnik.com/these-ten-cities-have-the-best-public-transit-in-the-wo-1610824583
    https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/10/riding-bikes-buses-trains-in-european-cities/543141/

  8. Traveling in Europe was not always as easy as it is today. Before the Industrial Revolution, the majority of people traveled by ship, horse, wagon, or even by foot. These journeys would take weeks to months, were often cramped, and abundant in disease. The Industrial Revolution, however, engineered coal and steam engines which significantly expedited these treks. Leading into the modern age, transportation has become a major focal point.

    Various cities across the continent place their citizens on higher priority. As technology gradually improves, providing consumers with fast and reliable transportation has become easier to accomplish. There are several means of transportation across Europe such as cars, river-systems, bus, air, and of course one of the most integral and widely used being the sophisticated train system. Trains and subways have become the most standard means of transportation in Europe. They allow for people to travel between borders, commute to work, and are simply an easy way to get around. Across France, Spain, and Portugal for example, there is the TGV (Train de Grand Vitesse) system. It is inexpensive, quick, and reliable. The bus and tram services are also widely popular. The main appeals are they are rather inexpensive. For example, in several western European countries, there is a bus service that costs 1 euro (2 euros round trip). They also are efficient in promoting tourism which in turn brings wealth into the economies. Another common mode of transportation are bicycles. In fact, in most European cities, it is common to see bike rental stands littered in nearly every nook and cranny. This provides an Eco-friendly option as well as increases local economic revenue, especially during ‘tourist season.’ Due to these various modes of transportation, many European citizens either do not own a car, or rarely use them.

    The creation of the European Union is the catalyst in the increase of transportation variety. One of the stipulations of being a member of the EU is to have open borders. Due to this, the European Transportation System (ETS) has been established in an effort to create an integrated infrastructure across Europe. This is focused on ensuring highways, rails, river-systems, and energy/electrical grids are easily accessible across countries internally and across borders. On top of this, the EU has also deregulated airlines which results in open skies and relatively cheap airfare. People in Europe now have a means to easily travel whether that be to see family, leave their country for opportunity elsewhere, or simply to take a vacation. This system is working its way further into the Eastern bloc as it is focused primarily in Western Europe. This not only benefits the people, but also helps businesses and companies to move goods which in turn helps sustain, flourish, and connect nearly the entirety of the European economy. It expands the European free market, reduces existing economic inequalities, and helps to redistribute the wealth. Easy and affordable access to transportation is a rather recent phenomenon in Europe but it is a necessary installment in today’s world.

  9. Public transportation systems in European cities have always been motivated toward efficiency and affordability. Whether by subway systems, busses, trams, trains, or bike, many European cities make it easy on the citizen to avoid personal car travel for their daily commutes. For many Americans, the interconnected nature of European cities and suburbs as well as the nations themselves is somewhat baffling. How are these European transportation networks designed and why do they exist the way they do?

    Modern European transportation infrastructures have a deep and complicated history and diving into the cultural reasons for their widespread appeals will prove less than definitive. There are, however, a few valid reasons we can look at concerning the way Europeans travel the way they do. As far as the comparatively low rate of car travel is concerned, much of that can be attributed to a smaller car culture in Europe and the tax incentives against car ownership. Many European tax structures do not incentivize spending money on an automobile; in the Netherlands, sales tax on a new vehicle is around 9 times higher than in the United States. And that tax figure is even higher in other states. The price of gasoline is also higher in much of Europe than we are used to. A gallon of gasoline in Italy can be close to four times more expensive than a gallon in the U.S. Additionally, the taxes on gasoline in European countries are often transferred into a general fund as opposed to worked into exclusively road-maintence like U.S. state governments do. Another theory is that European policies are more likely to encourage behavior shifts where car-ownership is concerned rather than technological patches. This means that European government policies would rather deter you from driving a car every day in order to help environmental issues rather than just spending money making the car outputs cleaner.

    Another major factor towards the support of European transportation systems is the way many of these cities are zoned. In many old European cities, residential areas can also contain many of the services and stores that the residents need making it easy to commute on foot or bike or a quick bus ride to get to a nearby doctor or grocery store. When residential and commercial zoning gets stricter, outward expansion and the sprawl of the population is more likely. Entire city suburbs in the U.S. can be zoned exclusively for single family residences while zones in Germany, for example, can happen practically block by block in a city.

    European cities have often led the charge in the realm of public transportation and automobile-independent travel. The Metropolitan Railway, the first world’s first underground railway, opened in London in 1863 and is still incorporated in the modern London Underground. Apart from massive cities like London and Paris, even ancient cities like Rome still have some form of underground transportation (albeit the subterranean remains of Rome force the city to be more reliant on above-ground travel). European cities also have consistently led the charge on implementing biker-friendly policies and amenities as well as car-free zones for bikers and pedestrians alike. European cities have an incredible tradition of building infrastructure for public transportation and, by comparison, is impressive enough to make most Americans jealous of the convenience.

  10. The use of public transportation in European cities is essential- and makes sense, especially in cities that grew out from industrial centers. Transportation was necessary for the people that ran the industrial sectors- the managerial population, which lived outside of the general factory area to avoid all of the pollution, overcrowding, and unsanitary living conditions. The need for transportation into the center of the city grew and grew as people began moving further and further out from the industrial center with the development of suburbs. Suburbs such as garden cities, where the richest of the rich lived, required that rail lines to the city be made. Commuter suburbs grew the city more and more, and the access to public transportation allowed people to live up to 20-30 miles outside of the city. The access to public transit allowed cities to grow out, and to be less populated. It also allowed people of all social classes (after it had been well established) to go to and from the city.
    Public transportation in Europe is much more developed than that in the United States. Most of the major cities in Europe have complex systems of public transportation set up- usually with buses and metros, sometimes with trams, public use bikes, or even in places like Italy, public use cars that you can access with the simple click of an app. This system of public transportation allows the people of a city to get around without a car, which is something that not everyone has access too. Along with this, it makes it easier to produce less pollution than if everyone drove their cars. It’s incredible to see what the ancient cities are able to do with public transportation, even when in places like Rome and Athens, they run into ancient ruins as they are digging for tunnels or for roads. Another incredible thing about European public transportation is that they are able to make it work both for large, post-war cities with wide streets and lots of space as well as ancient cities with tiny alleys and not so great spaces. Each city has seemed to adapt their public transport to their morphology, which has been very efficient.
    Public transport is not limited to the inner cities, though. Numerous railways have been built throughout and between various European cities to ease the travel from country to country. This has allowed for greater trade and communication from country to country, especially those in the European Union. It makes travel easier, cheaper, and more efficient. It’s easy to get from an airport to the city center in many major European cities whereas in the US, it can be a bit difficult to get to where you need to be without a taxi or something of that sort. On top of this, planes have been made more regulated in the European Union, making the cost of flying much cheaper than that here in the states. All of these things combined have made the movement of people, goods, etc. in Europe much easier and has made a more interconnected area.

  11. European countries have an extensive and relatively inexpensive public transportation network spanning across cities, countries, lakes, etc. Following the Industrial Revolution, and an increase in the availability and production of coal and steam powered vehicles, Europe saw a transformation from a rudimentary transportation network to one of the most efficient and extensive networks in the world. After the formation of the EU, a strong network was necessary to allow the flow of goods and people from one place to another without leaving any one nation or city at a disadvantage. In fact, the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) possesses a grand budget of EUR 22.405 billion for transportation infrastructure projects until 2020, which is strictly dedicated to projects within the territorial boundaries of Member States.

    Moreover, Europe as a whole has taken more steps towards implementing eco-friendly transportation measures in order to counteract the affects of global warming. Denmark for example has excellent bike infrastructure with over 12,000 kilometers of sign-posted cycle routes, and in Copenhagen there are more bicycles than cars. A third of people working in Copenhagen commute by bike, and bicycles are allowed onto trains all over the country to allow for easy commuting. In order to further incentivize cycling, Denmark has implemented places to lock and/or park bicycles in city centers for use when one is shopping, sightseeing, or simply moving from A to B.

    On a larger scale, Europe utilizes its vast water routes to quickly connect countries that would otherwise be difficult to travel between. The continent maintains numerous ferry routes, and even offers partnerships with the Eurail pass, a train pass that allows holders to travel in 28 European countries on nearly all European railroads. Finnlines for example operates ferries across Europe’s most important ports in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, although Europe possesses an abundance of options for travelers to choose between, whether it be for long or short distance trips. In addition, the DFDS European ferry route network covers English channel crossing between France and the UK, Germany and the Baltic States, and Sweden and the Baltic States. The ferries allow you to travel with your motor vehicle, and even forbids foot passengers, allowing one to quickly travel between cities and offers an immediate method of transportation upon arrival.

    In addition to cycling paths and ferry routes, Europe boasts a comprehensive train network which allows for individuals to live in suburban areas and commute to the crowded cities. In fact, due to the encouraged interconnectedness of the European Union, one can live in one country and travel to work in another. In London, the Underground connects the various districts and even adjacent counties such as Buckinghamshire, Essex, and Hertfordshire. Paris has a similar system, the Paris Metro, a rapid transit system which also acts as a symbol of the city due to its density within the city limits and it’s uniform architecture. The abundance of public transportation throughout Europe and especially within its cities allows the European Union to succeed as a political and economic union.

  12. Jaylan cline
    Transportation in Europe is one of the best in the world and well-constructed for travelers and tourists wanting visit different countries within Europe. What makes it so great is that its very affordable while also bringing most of the revenue for the Eu. Thanks to the industrial revolution trains and such has been a huge benediction for people who wants to go back packing without a problem for very cheap. Unlike America, where trains aren’t what people use as a primary source of transportation but in Europe it is. That’s not it, Europe offers more sources of transportation such as; trains, uber, ferries, and of course planes.
    Trains itself in Europe is faster to take rather than a plane and much safer. Considering the fact, that planes crashes more often than trains do. The mortality of rate of plane crash is relatively higher then that of a train crashes. It’s all about location, right? Well of course it is and trains in Europe offers just that. Most of the major trains stations are in the center of the major cities; whereas, airports are at least an hour away from most major cities in America. These cities Europe where the train station is in include places like: London, Berlin, Paris, Rome, and Barcelona. Also, being a tourist, you travel at a cheap price and still be able to see most of the beautiful sites while traveling versus planes where you can’t see anything.
    Car rental is another helpful transportation for people who wants to travel around the country side of Europe. Especially if you have friends visiting from other part of the world they can travel along with you on sort of road trip being able to visit and see beautiful lands and all what nature has to offer. Bikes, is extremely helpful for citizens and visitors wanting to excise and tour on bikes. It’s a real hassle traveling with bikes on a plane from America to Europe, but places like Italy who offers great bike rental companies allows you rent lots of different bike for touring and exercise at the same time. Even for the natives, bike transportation Is very common and helpful. Congestion and traffic really takes the fun out of driving, so it makes it a bit easier to travel on bike and metro train stations then anything else. Transportation is very important for Europe and the Eu has help to contribute to that.
    With the Eu implementing the free movement of people and capital that might have single handily boosted the popular demand of transportation. Now big industry can make trades easier from eastern Europe to western Europe. Transportation complements the free movement of people as well, due to them people maybe wants to move to find a better job he/she can do so cheaply and easily now. This all factors in with the free movement because wants you reach the border on like a train or on a ferry they issue you clearance because of the EU regulations.

  13. Following the industrial revolution, much of the rural population of Europe moved to cities to work in the newly built factories, establish entrepreneurial ventures, and be at the center of their respective country’s culture. Because of this, to this day Europe is home to some of the most urbanized populations in the world. Such an urbanized and dense population naturally must be able to get around efficiently, or the new industries risked inefficiency amongst their workforce. England and France were the first to undertake massive industrialization and thus was also home to some of the first forms of public transportation. Even before cars, horse drawn omnibuses were established in Paris in 1819, which allowed up to 50 people to ride across the city together and avoid the city’s muddy streets. After omnibuses came railways, with the first commuter train travelling from London to Greenwhich opening in 1836. Not long after came the first subway which opened in London in 1863. Subways are common in many large European cities, though they are only the most prevalent mode of public transportation in Moscow, Russia. In Moscow, the Soviets poured massive amounts of money into their subway system and kept it in fantastic condition throughout the years. The subway of Moscow brings the cities average cost of public transport down to just $.90 USD, which is a massive difference when compared to London, whose average cost is $4.00 USD or even Paris’ $2.00 USD. Often investment, rather than size, is an indictment of how much public transport is used. For example, 40 to 50 percent of Romans use public transport for their commute, but 70% of people in Vienna, whose metro population doesn’t even crack Europe’s top 20, use public transportation on their commute. Interestingly, there is a trend where island cities have a much lower usage of public transport than continental ones. Levkosia, Cyprus; Reykjavik, Iceland; and Valletta, Malta are the only major cities where less than a quarter commute by public transit. This is likely due to their isolated geography, which would not encourage integration with other cities systems and methods.

    With the advent of the European Union, the need for coordinated transport became important to help integrate the four freedoms. The Trans-European Networks (TEN) were established following the Treaty of Rome in 1957, with the goal of facilitating an internal market and to regulate the flow of people across borders. The EU still diverts funds to the TEN and the goal is to eventually have a massive train line capable of running from Paris to Moscow. Trains for much of the 19th and 20th centuries were people’s primary method of getting across the continent, however, with the recovery of industry and infrastructure following WWII, more funds were devoted to automobiles. Infrastructure such as the German Autobahn were established to accommodate private ownership grew. Similarly, infrastructure has been built to accomadate for bicycles in Amsterdam, where nearly 27% of the population use them.

    Sources:
    http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/information/publications/working-papers/2015/measuring-access-to-public-transport-in-european-cities
    https://www.angloinfo.com/blogs/global/angloinfo-world-expat-life/moving-the-masses-around-europea-brief-history-of-public-transport-and-citizen-rights/
    https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/10/riding-bikes-buses-trains-in-european-cities/543141/

  14. According to an article by the Seattle Times, Europe’s public-transportation systems are so good that many urban Europeans go through life never learning to drive. Their wheels are trains, subways, trams, and buses (plus the occasional taxi).
    In bigger European cities, the subway is often the quickest way to get around. Paris and London have the most extensive subway systems. In contrast, Rome, which has ancient ruins nearly everywhere you dig, has just two subway lines, and many areas are better served by bus.
    Besides single tickets, many cities offer some sort of multi-ride or frequent rider ticket option. Some cities offer passes that allow unlimited travel on all public transport for a set number of hours or days.
    Despite occasional hassles and stress, using public transit is efficient and economical.
    The European Commission strongly encourages the use of public transport as part of the mix of modes which each person living or working in a city can use.The European Commission addresses urban public transport in several ways: It liaises with key stakeholders for exchange of learnings and support. It promotes the exchange of best practice for example through the ELTIS portal which includes more than 700 case studies on clean & energy-efficient vehicles, collective passenger transport and intermodality from across Europe. It conducts studies on specific topics, such as the study conducted in 2011 on smart ticketing. It regulates the market of passenger transport by coaches and buses, in order to best protect passenger safety and rights and public service obligations in transport. Last, it provides funding through especially through the European Structural and Investment funds to support the development of cycle infrastructure in eligible regions and the Horizon2020 Research Framework Programme under the CIVITAS initiative .
    Another common form of transportation is cycling. Cycling is an efficient way of using expensive and scarce space in urban areas, and is healthy, clean and cheap. It has enormous potential when we acknowledge that almost half of all car trips in cities are of less than five kilometres. In many larger cities there have been actions to implement a public bike system. For example, in London has program with Santander Cycles. Santander Cycles, is available 24/7, 365 days a year. There are more than 750 docking stations and 11,000 bikes in circulation across London to help you get around quickly and easily. The program includes South West London so now you can saddle up anywhere from Shepherds Bush to Canary Wharf and Wandsworth Town to Camden Town.The Santander Cycles bikes are available to hire at the docking station terminal with a bank card – just touch the screen and follow the instructions to begin. Getting started is easy – simply hire a bike, ride it where you like, then return it to any of the hundreds of docking stations across the city. It costs £2 to access the bikes for 24 hour bike access, and the first 30 minutes of each journey is free. Longer journeys cost £2 for each extra 30 minutes. Remember, if you aren’t using a bike, dock it. You can hire a bike as many times as you like within the bike access period you have purchased.

    References:
    https://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/urban_mobility/urban_mobility_actions/public_transport_en
    https://www.raileurope.com/index.html
    https://www.seattletimes.com/life/travel/europe-made-easy-on-public-transport/
    http://civitas.eu/content/integrating-cycling-public-transport
    https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/10/riding-bikes-buses-trains-in-european-cities/543141/
    https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/dec/05/transport-europe-differ-city-public
    https://www.visitlondon.com/traveller-information/getting-around-london/london-cycle-hire-scheme#VxpYIFFGdq9wawJv.97

  15. Before the industrial revolution transportation was carried out either on foot, or by domesticated animals by carriages or wagons. Because of the modes of transportation that were available at the time many people and products did not travel very far. Having a reliable transportation system that connects the entire European Union is vital to ensure the 4 freedoms: the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services are being upheld. The Trans European Network-Transport (TEN-T) program exists to support and facilitate the development of the single market by providing funding for transportation networks to cover all modes of travel in the European Union including: major road and railways, airports, ports, and traffic management systems that cover the air, waterways, road, and rail ways. Transportation across the single market makes it easier to trade between the European countries and gives them all access to all the European customers. Transportation in the EU contributes about 4.8% in gross value to the countries of the European Union and also provides over 11 million jobs.
    The 2016 local public transport in the European Union statistics shows that 2014 saw the highest number of local public transport used. In Europe highspeed trains travel at about 125 miles per hour. The first high speed trains appeared in Europe in 1933 to transport people and goods. In 1939, Italy introduced its ETR 200 train that had routes from Milan to Florence and could travel at speeds of 126 mph, but services on the 200-train stopped when World War II began. After the development of the bullet train in Japan, Europe started to develop high speed trains in 1965 at the International Transport Fair in Munich, testing went on for a while in Europe for high speed transportation and their high-speed rails were finally fully developed around the 1980s. The development of these high-speed trains and transportation systems were able to help reduce congestion on other modes of transportation, aide in mass transportation to cut down on fuel emissions and be more energy efficient as a means to protect the environment, and were seen as more convenient. Because of the numerous advantages that mass transportation like trains have, by the year 2025, Europe plans to dramatically increase its railway connections in hopes of creating a Trans-European high-speed train network to connect the whole region.
    In the 1950s and 60s cyclists in The Netherlands were under a severe threat due to the increase of cars in the streets. Many people and children were killed due to accidents from cars and bicycles sharing a road together with no proper safety measures. Only after extreme activism did things change and improved conditions for cyclists, so much so that Amsterdam is now considered the bicycle capital of the world. In 1973 when the oil crisis occurred the price of oil in The Netherlands quadrupled, and the prime minister at the time encouraged his citizens to go car free, and even going far enough to declare car-free Sundays, where people would bike or walk places with significantly less risk. Through this, the Dutch began to realize that maybe driving a car wasn’t the most important means of transportation. Slowly more and more cyclists took to the road and the government made it a point to make the streets and area more bike friendly to promote the shift from cars to cycles.
    I remember being in The Netherlands and all I ever saw was transportation from the metro rails, or from the boats in the waterways, but the biggest thing I remember seeing was the crazy numbers of bicycles. There were wide streets just for cyclists in the center of the city, and what -to me- looked like parking garages just filled with bicycles. It was such a change going from the United States to Europe and seeing how the country had adapted to accommodate and even encourage different uses of transportations other than driving a car.

  16. The continent is quite possibly the most connected region in the entire world. The series of transportation methods and just how many there are throughout the entire continent is complex and huge. There are reasons for why this is the case.
    When Europe began to industrialize, cities had a specific layout. This was before there was mass transportation. Large cities were financial hubs, filled with banks, law offices, advertising offices eventually, and more. This was called the Central Business District and further out was residence areas. When trains, roads, and subways came about, they needed to connect all of the major areas in within the city and also connect to the residential areas. Further past the residential areas were factories and production facilities that also needed daily access to the inner cities where they needed to meet with white collar workers related to their business and so transportation was needed to connect these places as well. Most of the white collar workers lived close to the central business district and so they’d either walk to work or ride the railways. Street cars made an appearance as well but they were really only for the clerical, white collar workers who could afford them, not the blue collar workers. These are mainly used for longer distances, travelling into the city by car is a very busy, and difficult process. There is not as much parking in Europe for cars and so this is why the railways are so busy. They are also more environmentally friendly.
    When suburbanization began to popularize, with garden cities that had fresh air and green space, the richer white collar workers began to move even further past the production facilities. The Town and Country Association built commuting transportation because otherwise, the suburban families didn’t have a way to get to the city without driving. Suburban residents rely on trains for commuting into the city. Many cities don’t have very many roads into the city, the closest you can get to many of the inner cities via highway is to the green belt, or the production sector. Compared to the US, Europe uses way more public transportation and drive their own cars. Throughout the continent, there are railways that connect every major and many minor cities. Driving is still the main method of traveling long distances to other countries, but the railways are so interconnected and everywhere that you can get to anywhere you pretty much want to go via the trains. However, Russia has control over many of the railways which is an issue that some Western European countries are wanting to change. Currently though, with the open borders of the European Union, every country and every city is connected to many others for commercial transportation.

  17. The Industrial Revolution did more than speed of production of goods, it also sent Europe on track to create infrastructure that connected the rural areas to the growing urban areas so that farmers-turned-factory-workers would be able to reach their jobs. Since the roads as infrastructure were created in Rome, it seems like general trajectory that Europe would be the most accessible continent through transportation. Despite being smaller in square kilometer, Northern, Eastern, Western Europe and the Mediterranean have a lot of open space in between their respective cities and cities in Europe are where most people tend to congregate and reside which makes public transit a generally easier option for most. Since Europe is a peninsula built of peninsulas and made up of numerous islands, much of Europe is connected with a series of bridges and tunnels, as well as ferries. Ferries are particularly useful when island hopping in the Mediterranean or among the numerous other islands that make up Europe, as well as travel from Ireland to Britain and up to Norway, Finland and even Iceland. Rail systems have served Europe well for many years now, from the steam engine to electrified lines, and still are highly prevalent in Europe. Modern European rail networks span the entire continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to Russia. If you are a visitor you can take advantage of the Eurail Pass which connects 18 countries. The European Union has implemented many public transportation forms since it has come to fruition. Double decker buses are a London staple that people all over the world recognize and a fine form of transit within the city. Part of being a member of the European Union is that goods and people may pass freely within the states, which is more of an incentive to make travel easier between the states. My favorite way that the European Union has made this a reality is through the freedoms of the air and deregulation of European air travel and open borders between members which allows for budget airlines, such as EasyJet, that are extremely low cost flights with a “no frills” attitude to get you to and from airports that are within members of the European Union. “Cycle Europe” is a pretty popular craze that allows people to rent bikes at docking stations around cities. Most of these are charged on a daily rate and challenge the purchaser to propel themselves around cities and towns without using any energy source except their own manpower. I’ve always loved the idea of biking the French countryside through streets lined in lavender fields. Within cities in primarily Northern and Western Europe you will find extensive subway systems that get you where you need to be quickly on an electrified system. Europe also offers rides on buses that travel far distances much like the Greyhound buses in the United States. Of all these great public transit systems in Europe, driving is still the most popular form of transportation. Given the wonderful car manufacturers and places to drive said cars, why wouldn’t you want to drive? One place any car lover dreams of driving in the Autobahn in Germany where there is no speed limit and you will need to pay attention as nice sports cars zoom around you.

  18. In comparison to the United States’ public transport system, Europe’s system makes us look absolutely terrible. Americans spend an absurd amount of time commuting to work everyday with an average of almost 50 minutes per day, bested only by Romania and Hungary. Meanwhile, depending on the city, public transport is so efficient in Europe that many urban Europeans may go through their life never having to learn how to drive a car. Americans are known for massive highway systems and an unbreakable dependency on motor vehicle transport. These extended periods of time on lower quality roads makes for a much more potentially deadly trip to work as opposed to a public transport method. Europeans have done much better by providing and promoting a multitude of public transport methods, especially rail. Almost every large city has some form of an underground rail system, but Europe is home to the first ever subway when the metropolitan railway was opened in London in 1863. The rail system across all of Europe is extensive and boasts a bountiful network of high speed rail, something the United states is severely lacking. America’s fastest and most dependable “high speed” line is the north-eastern corridor’s Acela, averaging a speed of about 70 mph. The French TGV system from Paris to Lyon puts that to shame, averaging 140mph. American trains are also much less dependable with a punctuality rating of about 77% whereas European services are punctual 90% of the time. Railway engineering in Europe was even once named as one of the seven wonders of the modern world after the completion of the Channel Tunnel, which connects the United Kingdom with France, Belgium, and indirectly the rest of the European rail system. One downfall to the public transport systems in much of Europe is that is serves as a great opportunity for pick pocketers. Per capita, there are more pickpockets on Europe’s subways and buses that nearly anywhere else, so hold on to your wallets!
    Part of the reason Europe has made great strides in public transport infrastructure is because of their ambitious environmental initiatives. The European Union takes environmental sustainability very seriously and has identified one of their main goals as “contributing to the peace, security, and sustainable development of the earth without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs because of resource misuse”. They realized that to be sustainable, growth cannot be generated at the cost of negative environmental impacts. This means that short term economic gains at the expense of the environment need to be replaced by a more sustainable model of economic and social development, which will in turn give rise to greater efficiency and competitiveness. The EU agreed to achieve a reduction of at least 20% of its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, to ensure that 20% of energy consumption comes from a renewable source by 2020, and to achieve a 20% reduction in primary energy (energy obtained from raw fuels) use as compared to projected levels. As of now, EU countries are on track to meet those goals, partially thanks to their excellent development of far more sustainable public transport systems.

  19. When comparing the public transportation of Europe to that of the United States, Europe’s public transportation systems are significantly superior and more widely used. Only 11% of Americans say they take public transportation on a daily basis (Pew Research Center). Also, public transportation between cities is considerably lacking in the United States especially when compared to Europe. This has a lot to do with the fact that Europe is very densely populated. Europe also consist of strong centralized governmental institutions that invest heavily in public programs such as public transportation. After the destruction caused during the world wars, Europe was able to rebuild its transportation networks to create a means of transportation with more compatibility and integration especially under the regulation of the expanding European Union. It is easy to travel all around the continent from country to country by train, and because of the European Union’s monitoring of the rail systems, riders will find a similar level of quality throughout European Union. It is also easy to travel within countries, from city to city, by bus or train. There was been advancement in this technology with options for faster travel being offered, such as high-speed, or bullet, trains.

    The percentage of people that use public transportation in cities is high in Europe as shown in the upper left-hand graphic. Over 50 percent of the populations of Barcelona, Madrid, Amsterdam, Paris, and Berlin use alternate means of transportation from cars such as walking, biking, using public transportation. The exception is Brussels which is at 60 percent car use. These cities all average around 25 percent for public transportation usage. A interesting statistic to note is the use of bicycles in Amsterdam. The percentage of bike use in Amsterdam is almost the same to that of cars and public transportation. The Dutch have a biking culture which is facilitated by the flat terrain found within their country. Within European cities, depending on their layouts, you will find a combination of buses, trams, trains, metros, and bike sharing. Even special cases with cities, built around canals you will find water taxi systems such as in Amsterdam or Venice. Depicted in the photographs, bike sharing is a relatively new concept that is being implemented all over Europe. Bike sharing stations are set up so that the bikes are parked and locked into stations all around the city. A user is allowed to take a bike from one station and then return it to another station at the other side of the city, and a lot of the time these bikes are motorized to allow the riders to be able to expend less effort while utilizing them. These programs are affordable. The rider can pay for time used at the station. Some bike sharing programs are membership based where you need a card or plan, but these are easy and affordable to obtain. All of these systems do not just improve the quality of life of the residents but also benefit tourism by giving traveler affordable methods of transportation. Many European cities provide short term transportation cards for visitors to lower costs and increase the ease of use. I spent six months in Madrid, Spain last semester. During this time, I traveled to 14 different countries in Europe. I used public transportation everyday while I was there and loved it. It was very cost effective and easy to navigate. I was able to experience all the different forms of transportation from metros to interstate trains to bike sharing in Madrid to water taxis in Venice. It was far better organized compared to what I have experienced in the United States.

  20. Americans visiting Europe may notice that Europe has a different transportation system as we do in the States. It’s Europe’s rapid and frequently used public transportation has largely impacted the urban economies. It started during the growth of the Industrial Revolution depended on a transportation system to transport goods long distance. The main types of transportation from the Industrial Revolution were roads. waterways, and railroads. Before the peak of the Industrial Revolution, the transportation relied heavily on animals and boats for travel. People still needed a better way to travel formed new road construction techniques for smoother roads. However, it was human labor and wind was the source of power to travel by boat. A major invention of the steam boat that dominated as Europe’s form of transportation and changed the physical geography. In effect, canals were built to connect rivers, lakes, and ocean for the flow of people and goods. Manufactures created Industrial areas along or near water ways for easier access to ports. People living in the rural areas were moving into the cities for work. Housing was built near the industries for the workers, so to hear the shift-change whistle. These areas became over crowded causing harsh living conditions leading to famine. The wealthy people began to move their homes further away from cities, but managed their business next to the ports. This foundation created today’s form of transportation by foot walk or bicycle because everything in impacted together. The city expansions and people moving away from Industrial areas created bus transits to make it across the city.
    The next movement of growing public transportation broadly expanded throughout Europe was at the end of WWII. It was the Monnet Plan in 1946 formed an economic union between the “Original Six” France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Belgium. It was designed to co-ordinate the iron and steel industries. As they rebuilt from the WWII, there was a need of further growth of public transportation to the roads, rail, air and maritime for rebuilding. It was the railroads commonly used so trains could travel inland. The Economic Union was working so well another treaty was enacted to extend the community, to remove all internal trade barriers, to allow the free movement of people, good and capital, and to standardize all internal regulation and external tariffs polices within the EU. Transportation became extremely important for this new wave throughout Europe. Speed trains from city to city, buses within in the city to transport visitors coming for new living, for business, for tourism, and etc. the evolution of economic expansion has or will not stop. Globalization increasingly usage public transportation mostly dependent on air travel. In the last decade, EU capital cities’ average annual percentage growth are recently high. Brussels recently reached its highest in demand in public transportation. People are needing more buses because workers and visitors across Europe travel by airlines need to get around the city. To keep the flow, it is better to offer fast and easy transportation for travelers around Europe.

  21. Public transport is an integral part of life in Europe. They have the best, fastest and most extensive rail systems in the world, along with well-developed subway and bus systems to navigate some of the largest urban centers of the world. Europe’s public transport is so well developed, in fact, that some urban Europeans never learn how drive cars. Instead Europeans have the choice between trams, ferries, trains, taxis, planes, subways, bicycles, and buses to get around. Not only is public transport in Europe extremely reliable, but it is also very economical. Tickets for a subway may also be good for trams and buses in some cities or even for several transfers. Passes, multi-ticket deals, reloadable cards, or annual fees are available for even more convenience and efficiency. Cities like Amsterdam and Copenhagen come to mind when thinking about bike sharing programs, but in reality, bike sharing is found all throughout Europe. With the advent of smart technology and surveillance cameras, the theft of the bicycles has been kept down, thus leading to more bicycle sharing programs being started.

    Tourism is one of the leading industries in Europe and public transportation certainly helps sustain it. People come from all over the world to visit famous monuments and world class museums and with the help of public transit these tourists can get around more easily. With the stage set for them to travel easily, they can freely move from place to place and bring money and business to more places within Europe. Also, because of the EUs strict safety regulations on public trains and other vehicles, tourists can be assured of the same standard of safety wherever they travel within the continent. Perhaps because of Europe’s sophisticated public transport system, tourism there has grown.

    The nature of how Europe is arranged contributes to the success of public transport. Europe is a very densely populated region, so there is no time for traffic jams. In order to keep all the commerce moving along, public transportation makes sure everyone gets to where they need to go. With the EU unifying most of the region in a common market and with the aim of free movement of labor, goods, capital, and services, public transportation has been the vehicle to implement these goals. In this sense, the purpose of public transportation is more than merely the movement of people, but a unifying schema. This easy access between countries ensures that citizens across Europe are freely exchanging not just their goods and services, but also ideas and culture. Thereby ensuring another of the EUs objectives: to promote peace. Another intention of the EU that public transport carries out, is the development of science and technology; public transportation mitigates the effects of pollution and makes the best use of resources for the benefit of the most people. Public transport is the result of so much effort in Europe to lead in innovation, sustainability, economic growth, and social progress and in turn has helped propel these ends further.

  22. With the rise of the industrial revolution, the European Continent saw the rise of the use of energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, and other nonrenewable energy sources. The moving away from sources of energy such as these has become an pressing topic in Europe. Alternative energy sources refer to more renewable such as hydropower, wind, solar, natural gas, nuclear, geothermal, bioenergy, etc.. Energy production is an important and complex issue for Europe and encompasses not just environmental issues but political as well. The European Union’s urgency to reduce its dependency on our countries like Russia for natural gas and Saudi Arabia for oil. Members of the European Union are some of the world leaders in the use of alternative energy. The European Union has made the topic of renewable energy a huge policy focus. It is one of the headlines of the European Union’s goals for 2020. They have already made huge strides towards this goal. The gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources in 2014 was 16% which was up considerably from only 8.5% in 2004 (Eurostat). Impressively, one third of European Union member states have already reach their goals for 2020 with Denmark and Austria only one percentage point away. This rapid development towards renewable energy sources is incredible. There are huge amounts of investment and development in alternate energy production. Renewable energy sources accounted for 90 percent of the new power added to Europe’s electricity grids in 2016. More than half of this capacity was windfarms. Wind energy production is the motion energy of wind flow that is harvested by wind turbines which are depicted in the photographs. Wind is one of the more common forms of renewable energy in Europe with 10.4% of the European Union’s electricity demand being covered by wind power production. 27.5 billion euros were invested in wind energy development in 2016 (WindEurope). Denmark produces a large amount of wind energy with 42 percent of its electricity during 2015 because its landscape is very conducive to wind production. The most produced form of alternate energy in Europe is Nuclear. Europe has seen opposition to nuclear power especially due to disasters with nuclear energy seen with Chernobyl and Fukushima. The largest movement away from Nuclear energy as been seen in Germany. Germany has started measures to close all its nuclear reactors by 2022. Solar energy accounts for around 6 percent of the total energy production in the European Union (Eurostat). Hydropower production is mostly associated with the large sized dams, but it can also be produced in small-scale facilities as well. Hydropower accounts for more then 14 percent of total primary energy production of renewable energy. Geothermal energy technologies to extract the energy that is trapped in the Earth’s surface in the form of heat that is trapped in rocks and vapors. Geothermal energy contributed to around 3 percent of energy production in Europe. Iceland is a leader in geothermal energy production with around 85 percent of its energy production coming from renewable energy sources with 66 percent of that being geothermal.

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